Before the Second World Wolf, almost 7,000 cash was operating on our land. In what direction will he spend the last five years? What did the first payment card for the Tuzex account look like?
The development of banking is closely connected with change. It has no tradition in Italy, the Netherlands and Germany, where banks were established alongside ilm trading during 12.14. a hundred years.
The first banks in our country began to operate during the 19th century thanks to the natives of the European bourgeoisie. Both branches of banks established in Vienna and esk banks are being established. In 1825, Spoitelna esk opened the first two clients on the day of the building of the Parliament of R. Since 1847, the Austrian National Bank has offered its services to us, and since 1868, the Austrian banking bank.
The interconnectedness with Vdn manifested itself in the collapse of the village stock exchange, after which 99 banks disappeared from the market in 18731883.
Opt vm pomhme s danmi
Where the path led from seven thousand financial situation to zero
The power of the 20th century was for esk banking spn. In 1918, after its inception, the Czechoslovak Republic took over the banking system of Austria-Hungary. The Great Depression of 19291933 did not cause significant losses to the banking industry. Both the money market and the capital market reached even the advanced market economies before World War II.
The banking industry was very lazy and contained almost seven thousand money stocks. In 1935, there were 80 joint-stock banks and joint-stock securities operating in Czechoslovakia, 4 provincial banks for long-term debt, and 21 banks in other non-equity forms. In the Czech lands alone, there were 356 savings banks, 174 district pubs, 1909 crushed estates and 4,371 village camps.
A large and medium-sized companies were historically significant clients of banks. Spoitelny used to have a large number of branches and dealt with a particular dispute between the population, which is a small amount in the mountains. Today, the differences between the individual financial stocks are blurred.
Spoitelny formed together with the swirls of rubble (campelics and elephants) of the so-called people of the pennant. The level of the company was mainly focused on small tradesmen and farmers. Self-employed people were honored by discrimination in large banks, and the countryside was helped by the people to get farmers from the influence of usury. level of activity using the principle of self-help, when the own capital of the crusaders is formed by the crusaders.
We ended up much during the occupation of 1939-1945, when the number of banks dreamed radically and succumbed to German influence. the capital of banks moved under the control of the Nmc, the state was fully liquidated.
After the Second World War in 1945, stock banks were nationalized, and in 1948 the remaining private banks as well as savings and collective banks were confiscated. Following the Soviet model, there was a transition to the central administration and central filling. The private ownership of the banks has thus completely disappeared.
What the velvets of the revolution brought
The restoration took place and in 1989 the transition to the thorn of the economy. The main change was the introduction of a two-tier system, ie the separation of central and commercial banking. The central bank maintains the stability of the currency and has supervised financial institutions. Komern banka then provides services and products to clients.
After the revolution, there was a dramatic increase in the number of banks. In 1990, 5 banks were operating on our market, five years later in 1995 there were 55 of them. Following the restructuring, the number of banks settled at 37.
In addition to the actual development of banking, after 1989 there were also other changes in the financial sector, the market of securities gradually emerged. The main role was played by the coupon privatization of national economies, the Prague Stock Exchange was established and gave markets, especially RM-System.
Payment cards give the client access to his / her account, cash withdrawals at bank accounts, withdrawals from ATMs and payments for goods and services at contractual partners. The first credit cards appeared in the United States in 1914.
The first payment card on our market was introduced by the Trade Bank in 1988. It was a card intended only for a very limited number of citizens who went on a business trip abroad and had the opportunity to view a Tuzex account. With the help of B card dispositions, the owner could pay it without cash in Tuzex stores or choose collection vouchers at Sttn banka and SOB branches.
Year 1988, payment card of ivnostensk bank to tuzex account
Deadline 2007, payment card Visa, ivnostensk bank
esk and Slovensk spoitelna introduced the first card savings in 1989. Spoitelny tried to reduce the number of clients at five branches and reduce payment costs. The first, light green, esk sttn spoitelny card was used both for ATM withdrawals and payments. The first stores to accept the card were Kotva and Baa.
Year 1989, payment card esk sttn spoitelny
Deadline 2007, payment card Visa, esk spoitelna
Co ns ek?
When we compare banks in the 12th and 21st centuries, the increase in information technology, complex financial instruments and products, but the basic services of banks do not change. The bank still collects disputes from the state (fixed household) and lends to those who need to invest (most often companies). The second basic function that the bank performs is the payment and payment system between economic entities.
If our development is similar to that in advanced economies, the financial sector as a whole will strengthen, but banking will, in the original sense, weaken. Banks will continue to provide lending and payment services, but the number of banks in the intermediary function (change in investment disputes) is likely to decline.
The builder will choose deposited assets rather than bank deposits with declining year rates. For example, due to long-term price growth, they will invest directly in stocks and bonds, or in pension and investment funds that hold securities in their portfolios.
Thus, companies will not get their pensions firmly mediated through the bank in the form of securities, but so directly on the capital market by issuing their own shares or bonds.
In this trend, banks are among the subsidiaries of their investment companies and their activities are scattered among providers and securities trading.
Banks increase their income through the so-called cross selling. Information systems allow banks to know your financial and overall life situation and members to sell new products. For example, the bank’s new service (mortgage, leasing) and the product of its sister company (life insurance, pension insurance).
The Czech banking industry is small worldwide and will still be significantly affected by external factors, especially EU legislation (for example, rules for insurance deposits) and foreign capital. The EU requires the same conditions for the establishment and operation of financial institutions in all EU member states, and today most of the capital of banks in our country is in the hands of foreign capital.